Show Episode Outlines
01. Why a Happiness Show?
Why a Happiness Show?
I. Happiness is the point of our lives
A. It's the point of everything we do
1. work, leisure, school, marrying, raising children, etc
B. It's the point of everything we say
1. Conversation, asking for what we need, sharing information.
C. It's the point of everything we think and feel
1.Every thought and feeling avoids pain or attracts pleasure
D. It's the point of goodness
1. Aristotle; Happiness is the highest good - Ethics
2. The greatest happiness for the greatest numbers utilitarian
3. All goodness is designed to bring us pleasure here or after d
II. What is happiness?
Emotion / Mood / State
Evidence during first few days of life smiling during REM sleep
Probably is felt before birth
A. Ed Diener (Deener) U. of Illinois, foremost authority on happiness
1. 4 components involving pleasure and satisfaction
a. experience of pleasure Hedonic
b. non-experience of displeasure
c. satisfaction with life domains like work, marriage, money
d. satisfaction with life in general Cognitive
B. There is no one right happiness or wrong happiness
1. Happiness is different for each person
2. There is, however, morally better and worse ways to be happy
III. Another reason for doing the show: Many of us are unhappy
A. In U.S. 14% are unhappy; Correction from 20%
25% of pop are depressed at any time Seligman 94 What You
World wide 27% are unhappy
In some countries like Russia, Belarus only 50% are happy
B. Of the happy, many are marginally happy
Our level of happiness in the U.S. is 6.9 out of 10
a grade of D
C. Important because emotions are contagious
IV. Another Reason - We, as a population, don't really understand happiness
A. Not taught at home
B. Not taught in school
C. Not addressed directly by Government
D. Virtually no businesses teach it
Seligman Happiness Coaches
Barry Kaufman Choose to be Happy- gives weekend courses
E. While psychologists NOW study it, very few studies on increasing it
1n 1973 Psychological Abstracts began listing "happiness" as an
V. As a result, we seek it in ineffectual ways
A. Money B. Education, C. Power, D. Success, E. Beauty, F.
G. TV, H. Drugs and alcohol
VI. A body of psychological research now exists
A. Early studies began by Wessman Doc. Dis.. in 1957,
Wilson Doc. Dis. 1960
In 1960 Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness
Gurin, Veroff and Feld
Americans View their mental health
B. Major studies beginning in 60's - over 3,000 in total
C. Thousands of studies now completed - more each year get figures
D. Very few on increasing happiness
E. No psycho pharmaceutical research directly related to h increase
That I know of
VII. Promotional goals of the show
A. Establishment of businesses to teach happiness
Promote establishment of Federal Dept of Happiness (also Good)
Our foreign policy in addition to Democracy and Free market
B. Teaching of it in schools
C. Development of happy pills
D. Promote valuing happiness among the population seeking more
Encourage the creation of other happiness shows on TV and radio
Encourage further study especially on increasing happiness
VIII. Personal reasons for doing the show
A. Passion about happiness share my knowledge and findings
B. Teaching is a very good way to learn
C. Aid to writing my book on it
D. Considering becoming a happiness coach, adult Ed., Business
teacher generally promoting the value of happiness
E. No one else is doing a show like this to my knowledge
IX. Topics we'll cover
A. The essence of happiness thoughts, habit, learning, etc.
B. Valuing happiness
C. Effective and non-effective ways to achieve and enhance it
D. Critique of books and research on happiness
E. Topics like Happiness and Love, government, goodness, others
Each show will have a Strategies and Considerations segment
Email me with suggestions, comments or questions
1. Value happiness
3. Work on increasing happiness
4. Overcome fear anger and sadness as habitual responses to situations
Happiness Increase Experiments, Part I
The Happiness Increase Experiments, Part I
I. Comprehensive happiness research began in early 1960's, 1st
Increase study in 1977
3 Classic studies, 2 by Michael W. Fordyce, 1 by New Zealand
team of Lichter, Haye and Kammann
II. Intro to Michael Fordyce
College professor teaching at Edison Community College Florida
One of the top happiness researchers in the world
Editorial board of The Journal of Happiness Studies
III. "Development of a Program to Increase Personal Happiness"
In The Journal of Counseling Psychology, vol24, no 6, 1977
Was a self-study program, 3 separate experiments
Theory college students (presumably people in general) could
become happier if they modify their attitudes and behaviors to become
more like those of very happy people
First ever scientific experiment designed to increase happiness
A. Study 1
1. 3 pilot programs developed; 1 control group
a. insight program
b. Fundamentals program
c. activities program
2. Insight program General education in happiness
a. Read chapters from Fordyce's book on happiness
b. developed list of activities and habits to adapt
3. Fundamentals program specific info. on happiness
1. social more
2. develop more outgoing personality
3. become more active
4. lower expectations and aspirations
5. become more optimistic and positive
6. get better organized and make plans
7. overcome negativity and worrying
8. live in the present
9. Value happiness
Subjects given detailed instructions on how to accomplish
D. Activities program no instruction
1. relied on person's intuitive understand of what made them
2. Developed a list of activities to increase based on above
3. Theory do more of what makes you happy.
E. Control group
1. given false instructions same expectations as above
2. In order to control for experiment artifacts like demand
characteristics, good subject effect, etc.
F. All subjects were measure pre and post experiment on happiness
1. happiness measures have been validated by 4 decades
2. measurements also controlled for artifacts
1. Significant increases in happiness after 2 weeks
2. Fundamentals and Activities more effective than insight
3. After 2 months subjects who voluntarily continued the program
with no additional instructions had greater gains
a. felt changes had been incorporated into personality
b. felt optimistic about maintaining gains.
IV. Study #2
Developed and used Fundamentals program most successful of 3
Expanded course from 2 to 6 weeks
The previous 9 plus
10 Develop closest relationships
11 be a better friend
12 do more meaningful work
13 reduce negative feelings and worry separated into two skills
14 develop a healthy personality similar to more outgoing
A. results confirmed fist experiment greater success overall
1. 97% of the students reported program as successful
V Study #3
1. same study as #2 but done independently by students
2. those who did the most had the best success.
VI. The H. Increase Experiments part II will investigate the New
Zealand Teams strategies ; concentrate more on degree of success
(may not follow next week)
03. Happiness and
Happiness and Government
Why should Governments get directly involved in happiness?
While 89% happy 69 out of 100%, unhappy 54%, 25% dep. D
Role of Government Provide for the welfare of the people
We are the Government; decide what it should and shouldn't do
Explore space, build highways, create national parks
Past Gov. initiatives
Political and personal freedom, equality and civil rights
Social Security to care for the elderly and incapacitated
Medicaid to provide for health care needs of the poor
War on drugs
New war on terrorism
Everything Gov does is implicitly for purpose of happiness
What Fed Gov now does to help us politically in elections
Lower taxes money influences happiness very little
Education educated people no happier than uneducated
14 Federal Depts. all indirectly help us become happier
Transportation gets people and things to where they are
Needed and wanted ultimately for happiness
Defense and new Homeland Security depts. prevent others
From taking our happiness away
Education creates a workforce for our economy
Commerce facilitates conducting of business
What should our Federal Government be doing to DIRECTLY address
our Population's greatest desire; happiness which we are almost
Studies have demonstrated that increasing h. is quick and easy
Dept of Happiness that oversees the following;
A national index to measure H. Diener
Teaching of happiness in schools and through adult ed.
Right now kids go to school more for society
With 12 years education time can be devoted to h.
Would probably reduce dropout rates, very high NYC
Teach kids to succeed at what is most important to s.
Encourage business to get into happiness business
If business get involved, less taxes to Fed Gov
Kaplan, Berlitz, dancing, martial arts
Through tax incentives, loan guarantees
Promote Happiness through the Media TV, radio
Business uses media primarily to make money
Right now there is C-span for congress
On cable and satellite, over 100 stations devoted to
Everything from sports to shopping to comedy
Public station devoted to helping people get happier
Promote happiness increase politically like with economy,
health, education, drugs during elections, initiatives
Foreign Policy way to address terrorism
Traditionally we export democracy and capitalism
Exporting happiness increase would be wiser
Only people not capable of happiness are the starving
recruit from among the poor primarily
exist ultimately to increase happiness of cert. People.
Things that people want like more money, more person
Al and political freedom, religious influence are good
To have, but not necessary.. For people's happiness
Global happiness is probably best deterrent to global ter.
We can afford to spend money on helping world's people
US is responsible for 43% of world's econ. production
Mil budget next year greater than all other countries
Only 4% of our GNP ( very low historically)
Only 1/1000 of 1% on foreign aid
We could spend 10 times what we now spend easily
Benefits of a happier American and world population
Happy people are better people, more good less crime
Happy people are healthier lower health care costs
Happy people are more productive greater economic growth
Happy people enjoy life more, are more pleasant to be with
Why hasn't our Government directly address happiness needs of pop?
Ideas have their time civil rights, woman's rights, environmental
Concerns, political and personal freedom, democracy
We, the people must ask for it
What can we do to awaken ourselves and our Gov. to addressing this
2004 presidential election
Cite unhappiness figures to politicians
Ask them what they are doing directly
Inform them about happiness increase research
Its Happiness Stupid!
Talk about it with others
Create grass roots movement
Educate others about extent of our unhappiness and h. increase
Sounds like an idealistic, utopian goal
Happiness is the purpose of our lives
We have the knowledge to easily make us all much happier
We are not taking advantage of this knowledge
We are risking the happiness we have now terrorism
Aristotle Happiness is the greatest good
04. Happiness through
Happiness through Other People
I. Other people are our main source of happiness
A. significant other is most important
B. family and friends are next important
C. Other people are not necessary to our happiness
II. Why are other people such a good source of happiness
A. We are social animals more like dogs than cats
B. We love to talk
C. We love to be entertained
D. Others help us feel like we matter
E. Others provide us an opportunity to be nurturing, to care
F. Others give of a sense of belonging, a sense of community
G. Sex is our most pleasant activity
H. Others help us understand ourselves and life in general
III. How do we ordinarily enjoy each other?
A. We tell each other what we are doing, have done,
B. We share information of value to each other
C. We attend to each others' emotional and physical needs
D. We share activities like meals, TV, hobbies, shopping
E. We come together for common goals like work, religion
F. We entertain each other - the media does most for us
G. We keep each other company to avoid loneliness
IV. What do we need to do to enjoy others as much as possible
A. Understand and be forgiving - we didn't create ourselves, we're imperfect
B. Take risks; overcome fear of hurt and rejection
C. Make plans - call, write; plan out our social lives
D. Listen - be interested in others; keep exchange equal
E. Don't be excessively selective about friends
F. Introduce friends to friends - network socially
G. Make time for other people - don't work too much or hard
H. Be entertaining - cultivate social skills, humor, personality
I. Be supportive - help others to feel happy
J. Don't overdo time with others
K. Make as many friends as possible; also acquaintances
L. Cooperate rather than competing
M. Learn to be assertive; avoid passive aggression
O. Value other people
P. Remind ourselves that our purpose with others is enjoyment
VI. Relationship skills and society
A. It should be taught in schools
B. Our government should facilitate relationships
1. Government broadcasting on TV, radio, internet
2. Eliminate or minimize things like marriage penalties
3. Expand reach out programs to shut-ins, the elderly
4. Indoor parks - inexpensive for winter socializing
C. Businesses can teach people social skills like they do language
D. Media should be far more responsible in how they portray peo..
VII. Wise other people strategies
A. Use the telephone - value the connection
B. Throw parties - get invited to them, encourage them
C. Visit others, and invite others to visit - teatime etc.
D. Hold friendships as important as right and wrong
E. Join clubs, religious congregations
Happiness Increase Experiments, Part II
The Happiness Increase Experiments, Part II
2nd in a series of 3 classic happiness increase experiments
1st by Dr. Michael Fordyce in 1977
This one by Shelley Lichter, Karen Haye, and Richard Kammann
Psychologists from the University of Otago in NZ
Called "Increasing Happiness Through Cognitive Training"
Published in The New Zealand Psychologist, vol. 9, 1980
Group discussion of beliefs and attitudes
Daily Rehearsal of positive feeling self-statements (affirmations)
Premise; Irrational expectations, beliefs and attitudes bring unhap..
Based on Albert Ellis' theory that feelings come from how we
Idea goes back to at least as far as the Greeks
Used Wayne Dyer's book "Your Erroneous Zones" as reference
Method; Group discussion of Dyer's list of irrational beliefs
Expectation; Discussions would lead to greater happiness
Happiness measurement both before and after the experiment
Subjects (20 - 60 years old) divided into two initial groups
1. Learning group 1
2. Control group
16 weeks later a second Learning Groups (control and others)
15 items were discussed during eight 2 hour sessions over 4 weeks
Each item received a 5 minute introduction
Discussions for 20 - 30 minutes about practical applications
Occasional homework assignments; "what makes you angry"
Occasional role play was used to accentuate certain points
Discussed items were:
1. I choose my emotions and feelings
2. I feel good about myself
3. My feelings are controlled by other people's approval and disapproval
4. I believe my personality is fixed
5. I feel guilty about things I've said or done
6. I worry about future events or the future
7. I get angry at people or things that happen
8. I am ready to try out new experiences
9. I can "fail" at a task without feeling bad (blaming myself).
10. I find fault with others.
12. I demand I get justice and fairness.
13. I can act independently on my own feelings and beliefs.
14. I am (ready to be) emotionally open and close to somebody.
15. I enjoy my present moments.
After the 4 weeks Subjects were re-measured for happiness
6 weeks later subjects were measured a third time
Course was run again after 16 weeks for Learning Group 2
After 4 weeks happiness level of Learning Group 1 increased 22%
Control Group happiness level remained the same
At the ten week follow-up, LG's level increased an additional 9%
Control Group remained the same
16 weeks later; Learning Group (4 weeks) experienced a 42% increase
Experiment #2 was conducted by Karen Haye
Premise; Rehearsing positive self-statements for 2 weeks, (affirmations)
would raise subjects' level of happiness
Based on Emmet Velton's famous 1968 study - positive and negative
moods lasting over an hour were induced by reciting self-
Statements for several minutes
This experiment is a classic in psychology, cited in many articles
Subjects were college students; two groups
1. Treatment Group
2. Control Group
They were given 3 lists of 18 statements that were the opposite of
statements representative of clinical depression
1st list mild form, "I don't consider myself a bad person at all"
2nd list medium form, "I think I'm a good sort of person"
3rd list strong form, "I feel good about my self"
The statements were as follows (all are strong examples):
1. I feel good about myself.
2. I've got a lot of fine qualities.
3. I'm loved and trusted by those close to me.
4. I'm looking really great today.
5. I have confidence in my decisions.
6. I prefer to make decisions carefully, but promptly.
7. Today looks great.
8. I have a feeling that the future is going to bring good things.
9. I have no control over some of life's misfortunes.
10. I accept the fact that I have my weaknesses, but I can do something about them.
11. I can't wait to get started on something.
12. It's better to get unpleasant jobs out of the way right now.
13. I love being alive.
14. Up to a point I like being independent.
15. I feel great about myself as a person.
16. I get a lot of pleasure out of everything I do.
17. I'm feeling close and loving about the people around me.
18. I'm feeling in a great mood.
Subjects read statements for 10 minutes each morning for 2 weeks
They could spend as much time on each statement as they wished
Beforehand they read the following paragraphs:
will depend on my willingness to be open,
and to respond to the ideas in each
statement. I will allow each idea, each
feeling, to act upon me without
interference. I will concentrate my full
attention on these statements. I will go
over each statement again and again in my
head with the desire to really believe in
it. I will experience each idea and identify
myself with it. I will move further and
further into it, until I do feel the way the
I might even find that memorizing certain
statements and saying them to myself during
the day will help me.
I will train myself into adopting this
outlook, this healthy way of thinking, into
my everyday life. I will let these
suggestions act upon me. I will become a
happier person because I am feeling good
about myself and my life. I will be able to
get myself out of low moods by reading these
statements to myself. I will be better able
to control my moods.
Both Treatment Groups and the Control groups filled out a
happiness questionnaire each night before going to sleep
These tests are highly reliable 40 years of validity
Treatment Group recorded which list (mild, etc) they read from
Subjects in the Treatment Group had a 25% increase in their level of H.
Results of both studies similar to Dr. Fordyce's results using 14 fundamentals
On Thursday, June 5th, we will review the third classic happiness increase
experiment, also published by Michael Fordyce three years after this
one in 1983
Strategies and Considerations
07. Happiness and the Determinism vs. Free Will Question
Happiness and the Determinism/Free Will Question
This show devoted to explaining that Fate, also known as Destiny
or, within a religious context, God, determines everything we
think, feel, and do, and how this understanding can help us
better enjoy two very important sources of happiness, our
selves, and other people.
More specifically, understanding determinism keeps us from blaming and hating
others and ourselves, and keeps us away from pride and envy
I'll begin by explaining why free will is impossible
Then I'll show how to apply the understanding of determinism. to our lives
I don't wish to offend religious believers in free will
Understanding determinism is not necessary to great happiness makes it easier
Definition of Free will and Determinism or Predetermination
Idea goes back at least as far as the Greeks Pythagoras, Democritus, and
Many Philosophers have addressed the question
Basically, they have virtually all been in agreement that free will is impossible
Sir James Jeans Famous British Physicist, astronomer and mathematician
First to propose that matter is continuously created throughout universe
In 1943 published a book titled Physics and Philosophy
Originally co published. by Cambridge U. Press and Macmillan Co.
Still in print, by Dover Publications
On page 205 of the Dover ed. He writes:
"Practically all modern philosophers of the first rank Descartes, Spinoza,
Leibniz, Locke, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Alexander, as well as many others
have been determinists in the sense of admitting the cogency of the arguments for
determinism, but many have at the same time been indeterminists in the sense of
hoping to find a loophole of escape from these arguments. Often they conceded
that our apparent freedom is an illusion, so that the only loophole they could hope
to find would be an explanation as to how the illusion could originate."
This is not just a philosophical question
There is a very strong scientific, logical, and spiritual basis for Determinism.
On page 212 Dr. Jeans writes the following:
"The further psychology and common sense probe into the question, the more
necessary they find it to accept orthodox determinism our acts are determined by
our volitions, our volitions, by our motives, and our motives by our past. The
psychologists will think of this past in terms of heredity and environment, the
moralist in terms of ethical and spiritual influences, and the physiologist in terms
of physico-chemical activities. But all will agree that the relative strength of the
various motives is determined by past events, so that a man never chooses for
himself; his past always chooses for him."
Further down on the page he asserts that, notwithstanding considerations arising
from quantum physics, this opinion is also shared by the vast amount of present-
While book was published in 1943, nothing new in physics refutes this.
Einstein, also a determinist, once said the following:
"Honestly I cannot understand what people mean when they talk about the
freedom of will. I feel that I will light my pipe and I do it, but how can I connect
this up with the idea of freedom? What is behind the act of willing to light the
pipe? Another act of willing?
There are several ways of understanding why our thoughts and acts are all
1.Psychological The Nature / Nurture debate
Underlying that debate is the acknowledgement that either genes
or the environment determines human behavior
The Pleasure principle we're programmed to seek pleasure
2. Logical If we had free wills, we would all be very happy and good.
Some people believe we have limited free will must explain
Thoughts just come into our minds from where, how?
3. Physical Causality and Determinism
Principle of Cause and Effect
The past causes the present, the present causes the future
A very important part of Newtonian, or Classical Physics
The advent of Quantum Physics in the early 1900's
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle of 1924
Impossible to measure position and momentum simultaneously
Like with both sides of a quarter
Led some Physicists to conclude
Sub atomic particles don't have position and momentum simult.
Law of Cause and Effect is negated
Called the Copenhagen Interpretation; Neils Bohr
Nothing in quantum Physics requires this interpretation
Quantum Mechanics must rely on Cause and Effect to work
It relies on probabilities concerning groups of particles
These probabilities could not arise without cause and effect
Quantum phenomenon limited to sub atomic, and not macro world
In Macro world cause and effect still governs everything
Our Thoughts are carried by neurons that are macro in nature
Perhaps thoughts are sub-atomic
That's a metaphysical question at this time
Like how time could be eternal, never having begun
Our best understanding of reality is that it is gov. by cause and effect.
As such, free will is impossible
4. Religious An omnipotent God - Logically negates free will - ambivalent
Genesis 17,1 "I am the Almighty; obey me and live as you should."
Deuteronomy "I've given you a choice between a blessing and a curse"
An Almighty or omnipotent God can't grant free will, by definition
Like "Can God create a rock so heavy that even He couldn't lift it"
Woman from Man's rib, (evolution) 6,000 year old world
Understanding that everything is pre-determined is not nec. to Happiness
Conclusion; Yes we're puppets, and fate, or God, is the puppeteer
As Shakespeare put it " All the world's a stage, and all the men and women
We can never-the-less become very happy
To the extent that we do, it will have been fated
Why is understanding Determinism important to our happiness?
The belief in free will causes needless blame, pride, and envy
Blaming others and ourselves
Someone does something wrong to us lies, steals, betray us
We blame them which leads to anger toward them and separation
They were fated to do what they did they were also victims of fate
We might blame fate or God, but remain close to the other person
We might still want to take precautions or punish if necessary
We would do this without enmity
Same principles apply to when we do something wrong
Envy and Pride
Someone we know has something we don't; money, talent, fame, power,
We envy them thinking that they earned these blessings
We suffer lower self-esteem in comparison
Other person was blessed by fate, was simply fortunate, not his doing
There is no reason to look up to the person
We may still want what they have
Same principle applies to what we do and have
If we remember we're just lucky, we don't become arrogant
We give credit to God, or Fate
Basic considerations in understanding determinism
We still get rewarded or punished for what we do by laws and nature
We still have to protect ourselves from the evil of others
So what that we're puppets
We don't choose when we're born or die, who our parents will be etc.
Much of life is not in our control even believing in free will
Forgiveness and understanding determinism yield similar results
We already believe that everyone does the best they can
Understanding determinism leads to better relationships
The better our relationships, the happier we can become.
08. Happiness: The
Happiness: The Highest Good
Idea dates back to at least the Greeks Aristotle, Ethics was the first
What is goodness
One of the most difficult questions in philosophy
What is virtuous, moral, ethical; these are synonyms
Relative to a benefactor; God, Society, Parents
Utilitarian philosophy what brings happiness to people
Why is Happiness the Highest Good?
It's the goal or purpose of goodness in general
Goodness could not exist were it not for happiness God's, etc
It's the goal or purpose of all specific types of goodness
Loving and being loved bring happiness
Happiness is why we seek love
To love someone is care deeply about the happiness of the other
Compassion and Kindness
We help others in order to help them become happy or happier
Even misguided compassion, like the Crusades, is about hap.
Fosters trust, leads to peace of mind, allows happiness
To disrespect causes others unhappiness, pain
Work, and being productive
It maintains present happiness and secures future hap., investment
Obeying God is rewarded here and in hereafter with happiness
We are instructed to serve without thought of reward, but
Other aspects of life that ultimately bring happiness:
Knowledge is a tool for creating a better world happier world
Brings peace of mind, and happiness
Health to keep us alive for the sake of those who love us
A very effective means of exchange and motivator
Business has as its goal greater happiness can be selfish
Married people are generally somewhat happier than singles
Makes getting things done for the public good much easier
Utilitarian Philosophy measure of Goodness
That which brings greatest happiness to greatest number
That's how governments ideally operate
Allocation of resources toward that end
Logical Consequences of Happiness as the Highest Good
Should be the first priority
in raising children goodness is a means
in Public Schools
in Foreign Policy and Foreign Affairs
To just be barely happy or not happy is to not be very good
Seeking great happiness is not selfish or hedonistic
A concern for others must also be evident
The best we can do for others is help them find greater happiness
Becoming happier is an effective way to become a better person
Happiness in relation to goodness in general
Being happy through evil not wise or good
Could have long term unseen consequences justice
Being too good is unwise, probably because of lower hap.
Global Goals related to happiness and goodness
Everyone on the planet should be fed given a chance at hap.
Consider happiness as more important than economic prosper.,
technological advancement, and all other good endeavors
All others are good only as they serve our happiness
10. Happiness and its
Happiness and its Distractions
Happiness requires a focus of attention
Acknowledging our happiness
Saying "I am happy"
Usually automatic, can be actively conscious
Overcoming philosophical, religious, psychological barriers
like false modesty and humility, ethics and guilt
Cognitive Selection and Evaluation
Choosing pleasant thoughts
Waiting for a train enjoying the scenery, etc
Not dwelling on problems or imperfections
Seeing the glass as half full
Seeking the pleasure, and overlooking the unpleasant
Not being distracted by other stimuli
Work, hobbies, ambitions, projects, goals etc
Unpleasant emotions and thoughts, and desires
What are the specific distracters to our happiness and how do we over
Unpleasant emotions see the uneccesity of having them
Fear don't worry
Anger see the illogic an unneccesity of it
Sadness see the illogic an uneccesity of it
Limit desires to those easily or pleasantly attained
Connect desires to goal of happiness
Believe that we always have what we need to be happy
Work don't do to much or work too hard
The perfect is the enemy of the good
Veer away from wrong kind of work for other goals like
money, prestige, power, etc
Projects- like remodeling home, writing a book
Evaluate how important they are, how necessary
If you're not enjoying it you're doing it wrong
Leisure act ivies Like TV, free time, groups people
TV can make you feel worse studies show
Be very selective in how, and with whom you spend time
Need to know , curiosity News watching and reading
TV watching especially the war
Things don't happen that quickly
Most of what is presented is totally unnecessary to know
Ignorance is bliss
Ignorance of what makes us happy
We spend time in ineffective or inefficient pursuits
Learn what makes you happy and do a lot of it
Comparisons and competition
Many people base their happiness on this
Choose right comparisons
Don't compete socially
Right and Wrong, Perfectionism, Focusing on problems
Things don't have to be right, or perfect, applies to world
People don't have to be good
Materialism expecting things to make us happy; clothes, etc.
This strategy is very short lived
Philosophy of life shouldn't be enjoying while others suffer
Pleasure is hedonistic, wrong
Guilt over feeling good while others suffer
Life was made for pleasure and happiness
Our unhappiness doesn't help those suffering
Comfort and ease easier to not feel good common with depress..
Education in happiness it can be increased motivation
General strategies for staying focused on happiness
Happiness is a habit
A conscious and sustained effort is needed
Active sustained focus on happiness
Recognition that happiness is the goal always
Willpower to stay focused
Associate everything with happiness consider it always
Select and prioritize activities
Pleasures vs. investments in greater happiness, e.g. TV
Always ask how happy is this making me?
Do only what is necessary of work you don't enjoy
Societal Distractions to happiness
Preoccupation with wealth, material prosperity, status
Government Dept of Happiness
Business happiness business
Media Don't buy into the status hype
Preoccupation with Knowledge academic learning
Schools teach happiness
Leisure learn happiness on our own, not news, facts
Preoccupation with entertainment
TV, especially teach happiness instead
Preoccupation with problems Fix everything mentality
Media crime, Environment, medicine, etc.
Free Market society Liaise Fair Government
No one is caring about or guiding our happiness
Businesses concentrate on products to make money
The work ethic
Many of us work much harder than we need to
Processed foods, expensive toys, hobbies, lifestyle
Work less to avoid stress
Create time for pleasure
Happiness Increase Experiments, Part III
The Happiness Increase Experiments, Part III
3rd classic happiness experiment
by Michael Fordyce
Called "A Program to Increase Happiness: Further Studies,"
The Journal of Counseling Psychology 1983, Vol. 30, number 4
After going through this I will summarize the 3 studies, make conclusions
4 new studies
Modified replications of studies 1, 2, and 3 in Fordyce's 1977 exper.
Provided more stringent controls to prevent artifacts
Utilized a greater variety of criterion measures
Followed up on the results for a longer period of time
Brief recounting of the 14 fundamentals - Worded differently than in 1977
1. Keep busy and be more active
2. Spend more time socializing
3. Be productive at meaningful work
4. Get better organized and plan things out
5. Stop worrying
6. Lower your expectations and aspirations
7. Develop positive, optimistic thinking
8. Become present oriented
9. Develop an outgoing, social personality
10. Work on a healthy personality
11. Be yourself
12. Eliminate negative feelings and problems
13. Close relationships are the number one source of happiness
14. Put happiness as your most important priority.
Control group received part 1 of the training
Reviewed past happiness literature
Received lectures on meaning and importance of happiness
Were given a brief overview of the 14 fundamentals
Experimental group also received
Detailed elaboration of the 14 fundamentals
Cognitive and behavioral techniques to help achieve them
Examples of some of the techniques:
For "Stop Worrying"
1. keep a daily record of worries
2. Analyze amount of time spend worrying
3. Determine how many worries actually come true
4. Use thought substitution techniques to avert worrying
Training lasted for 11 weeks
10 separate measures of happiness change were used
More information given, the greater the happiness increase
Techniques and understanding of principles were main factors
6% experienced "extreme" happiness increase
30% experienced "much greater" happiness
39% "improved somewhat" in their happiness
6% experienced "slight increments"
17% experienced "no effect"
2% had a decrease in happiness
Of the 19%
Some were already very happy to begin with
Others chose to ignore the program
Control group given same introduction and detailed instruction in 4 fund.
Experimental group given full instruction again
Measures of emotional health were taken
4 fundamentals taught to the control were:
1. Spend more time socializing
2. Be more active
3. Be productive at meaningful work
4. Get better organized
These 4 were deemed easiest to follow
10 weeks of instruction
Not much difference between control and experimental group
Increases in mental health were found
Study was considered too stringent 4 fundamentals very effective
1 complete instruction
2,3, and 4 given 1/3rd of the fundamentals
5 was a control no detailed information about happiness (like, experiments
1, 2, and 3 in 1977)
Time series testing was used every two weeks
to measure changes in h. during experiment
Group 1 was given lifestyle change fundamentals and
Close relationships are the number one source of happiness
E.g.. Keep busy and be more active
Group 2 was given attitude and value related fundamentals and
Close relationships are the number one source of happiness
Eg. Lower your expectations
Group 3 was given personality related fundamentals
E.g.. Be yourself
Groups subjects were assigned to reflected their lowest scores on pretests
All experimental groups had uniformly increasing happiness
Lifestyles group experienced the greatest gain, not by much
Full instruction group did no better than the 1/3rd instruction groups
Tested how long the happiness increases lasted
Subjects were questioned 9-18 months after training ended.
29% found information made them "somewhat happier"
25% "a good deal happier"
24% helped them "extremely" in their happiness
On average subjects estimated that their level of happiness was 12 percentage
point higher than it would have been without training.
Generally less happy one is greater gain- harder to become very happy
Summery of Happiness Increase Techniques in 3 classic experiments
1. instruction in fundamentals of happiness, like just presented
2. Discussion about happiness relevant material, Lichter, Haye, and Kammann
Initial happiness gains of about 25%, long term, about 12 percent for fund.
25% gain increases 69% average to 86%
12% gain increases 69% average to 77%
State of Happiness Increase Experimentation after 1983
No replications followed during the immediate years after the studies
1992 Understanding Subjective Well-Being by Bruce Headey and Alex Waring
Stated that long term happiness increase was theoretically impossible
Dr Ruut Veenhoven -The Netherlands Leading expert on International Happiness
Too little money for research no industry interest like pharmaceuticals
Science, especially clinical psychologists, don't value hap. enough
Not used as an outcome variable in psychotherapy research
Training may not apply to everyone
Dr. Diener leading expert on Happiness in the world
Thought that perhaps Fordyce had too many components working in
Experiments difficult to determine what worked
1998 Positive Psychology movement began
Coinciding (late 1990"s) researchers again began to conduct increase experiments
Sonja Lyubomirsky and Kennon Sheldon in particular have been promoting study
and the Perfect World Movie
Happiness and the Perfect World Movie
Before we start announcement
The Ethical Culture Society. of Westchester will be sponsoring our show
E.C. is a religious and educational fellowship devoted to promoting ethical living
The congregation is warm, and friendly, and very concerned with our world
They're located here in White Plains at 7 Saxon Wood Road
I just became a member a few weeks ago
Ethical Culture is a Humanist religion founded in 1876 by Felix Adler
Our Westchester Soc. will periodically produce episodes of The Happiness Show
Focus on the connection between happiness and goodness.
Next week, Bart Worden, the leader of our W. Ethical Society will host it's 1st
I hope you'll tune in for this very special show
Our feelings and behavior is greatly influenced by experience
The environment events mold us
The media mirrors us as a society; we are influenced by the media
It can rally us to war, or to help famine victims, or to see a movie
It can make us more socially tolerant; it can make us more violent
Our movies have a tradition of accentuating the worst that could happen
The Towering Inferno
These movies influence us to fear our world
They move us to feel great pain
Violence on TV certainly makes children more violent
Many movies we watch may contribute to our high anxiety levels
and depression levels 25% of us depressed at any time Seligman
Few movies try to present purely pleasant experiences, like a concert
Perhaps because of theory of conflict in story a myth
Some try to present "happily ever after" endings
This show is about presenting the rational for a new genre of movie
The exact opposite of catastrophe/horror movies
Designed to influence us to embrace life, not dread or regret it
A Perfect World Movie
Would depict an absolutely pleasant, trouble-free existence
A utopia, or paradise on Earth
Just as unrealistic as Giant Insects controlling earth, or aliens
Would serve as a role model to work toward
Would inspire hope and vision regarding what our world could be
Would present a totally pleasant vicarious experience
Would demonstrate that sitting through 1 « movie could be a totally pleasant
experience, like attending a 1 « new age music concert
No need to present any specific ideology
Just depict everyone enjoying every minute of their lives
Going about their daily routines absorbed with pleasure and goodness
Should include everyone, all sections of society, all parts of world
Could come about in either a realistic or non-realistic manner
Individual happiness can be increase greatly by working together
Such a movie could inspire us to undertake the challenge
Examples of what perfect world movies could present;
No wars, or threat of war
Racial and ethnic harmony; mixed marriages etc.
No persona conflict, plotting against one another like in soaps
No illnesses or accidents, everyone in perfect health
Everyone everywhere enjoying whatever they did
Answers to arguments saying that such a movie would never work
In reality today we have generally very pleasant days Weddings
Many of us believe that when we die we will experience absolute bliss
We'll never know unless we try
We are obsessed with violence, fear and pain
We are the most violent country in the world
We have developed a masochistic and sadistic approach to pleasure
Movies and perhaps TV shows depicting how things could be would serve as a
great way to lead us in the right direction
A perfect world movie could inspire us to work to become happier
It might make many of us unhappy seeing such a movie
Of course we seem to love movies that sadden and depress us anyway
How can we get this kind of movie made?
Word of mouth talk about it, write about it. If you can write stories or
screenplays, do it
If you know someone who needs something new to write about, tell them
is Dependent on our Thoughts
Happiness is Dependent on our Thoughts
Review - The four components of happiness, by Ed Diener of U. of Ill.
Presence of pleasant affect
Absence of unpleasant affect
Satisfactions with domains of life
Satisfaction with life in general
Hedonic components are largely based on cognitive appraisal
Satisfaction components are based on judgments
Both types of components are based on thoughts.
Idea isn't new
Epictetus Greek "People are disturbed not by things, but how they view
Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck based therapies on this idea
Seligman 1984 cites that this type of psychotherapy is one of two proven to
cure depression ECT and antidepressants are also effective
Ed Diner's Evaluation Theory of Happiness uses this principle as his
How it works
An event happens "someone says something, something doesn't happen -
We perceive it
We judge, or appraise it cognitively
We react emotionally based on our cognitive appraisal
We always have a choice in how we appraise events
What factors cause us to perceive events, or stimuli, in a certain way?
Genetic factors about 50% of personality traits, 80% intell.
By direct experience and reasoning
By being taught directly parents, teachers, friends
Being taught by modeling
Habits of reaction are developed and function automatically
How can we change our unpleasant appraisals?
Example a train is late it won't make you late to anything anyway
Habitual response is to become impatient and frustrated
Challenge the logic of the appraisal a train is late
Look for alternative appraisals e.g.. I can enjoy the day, so what?
Force of will I won't let this delay ruin my mood
Reality check with others How do you not get angry with trains?
Repetition of pleasant appraisals to form a new habit of reaction
What kinds of appraisals should we be changing?
Any that cause fear, anger, sadness, disgust, or unpleasant Surprise
Any not in our best interest becoming angry at boss or baby
Example of how we can control thoughts leading to unpleasant emotions
Fear of speaking before an audience People's greatest fear
What exactly am I afraid of be specific
Not being appreciated?
Being embarrassed or shamed? appearing foolish?
Why would this happen?
I might become nervous, and lose my composure
I might forget what I needed to say
The audience might be feeling hostile
I might inadvertently offend the audience
How can I avoid this potential shame or frustration?
Most audiences will not try to shame the speaker
It is unlikely that I will offend the audience
What do I do if I do become embarrassed or feel unappreciated?
Big deal it really isn't that important
I'm human and we sometimes become emotional
Philosophical It's all God's will, or Its all for the best
Unpleasant emotions don't help
Unpleasant emotions are not necessary
Unpleasant emotions often make things worse
Look for pleasant appraisals of the situation
Find humor in your embarrassment or frustration
People sometimes warm up to someone in trouble
This process of choosing our reactions can be applied to any situation
Prepare in advance if possible
The cue is any unpleasant feeling
The overall strategy is to make new reactions habitual through reps.
The process can also be applied to domain and global satisfaction judgments
Low income more money doesn't create more happiness
Difficult marriage marriage; is only one aspect of life, happy other ways
Not enough friends spend more time with friends I have
My life is a complete failure I can still be very happy
By choosing our reactions we address the four components of happiness
Decreasing unpleasantness and increasing pleasure raises happiness
Judging events in a way that achieves satisfaction creates happiness
17. Happiness as
our Guiding Purpose
Happiness as our Guiding Purpose
What is happiness?
1. Experience of pleasure
2. non-experience of displeasure
3. satisfaction with life domains - work, marriage, education, friends, etc.
4. Satisfaction with life in general
What is the relationship between happiness and pleasure?
Pleasure is more immediate, sensory; happiness is more a state of mind, and
emotion or mood.
The foundation of happiness is pleasure
How has happiness been understood in the past?
By the Greeks? Aristotle
By Freud and modern psychologists? Hedonic principles
What is the purpose of every thought we have, thing we do? - decrease pain and
increase pleasure in order to maintain or increase our happiness
Work long hours for more money, 12 years of school, chores, shopping, all of our
What is the pleasure quotient, and why is it important?
We often undergo pain in the present to experience greater pleasure in the future
Why is it important for us to understand the role pleasure and happiness play in
The better we understand this, the better able we will be to access pleasure and
We often seek pleasure and happiness in ineffective or distracting ways
Seeking money, education success, appearance, power
Resorting to negative emotions
Can we learn to become much happier?
There is a genetic "set point," but it can be overcome
Experiments in the late 70's, early 80's proved that it could be done in 2 weeks
What are the difficulties in increasing happiness?
Many popular happiness books are untested and reflect the author's philosophy
Books by psychologists on happiness are mainly academic
There are no courses in school on this, and there are no businesses teaching this
How do we become more in tune with happiness as our guiding purpose?
Remind ourselves put up signs, put it on your answering machine, say it daily
"Happiness is my one desire; goodness is my one obligation"
Stop postponing happiness - it is almost always available in the present
"If we're not enjoying what we do, we're likely doing it wrong"
We should question our negative feelings we are being distracted by them
Don't suffer needless pain through more work, more money, etc than we need
Overcome desires Don't let them over-ride our purpose - The Buddhist way
Become political with happiness - Government, schools
Get into the habit of practicing happy thoughts
What is the relationship between happiness and goodness?
Happiness is the highest good
Goodness has as it's purpose, happiness
Measure of Goodness: The greatest happiness for the greatest number -
Utilitarian belief - Bentham
We choose goodness over pleasure always to gain reward and avoid punishment
Happiness is our guiding purpose
Everything we do is designed to maintain or increase our happiness
The better we understand this the happier we will be
Importance of Valuing Happiness
The Importance of Valuing Happiness
What it means to value happiness
Understand that it is our basic goal in life
Value happiness above all other goals, like success (mention goodness)
Understand that everything we do is intended to achieve H.
Hedonic principles - Freud's pleasure and reality principles
Why it's important to value happiness
It is necessary to maintaining and increasing it
The more we value it, the more we will work on increasing it
To reap the benefits of happiness (following are based on studies)
Better emotional health
Less depression, suicide, paranoia, hypochondria
Greater self-control and coping abilities
Better physical health
Bolstered immune system
More energy, and activity
Better social life
Higher odds of marriage, lower odds of divorce
More friends, stronger social support
Richer social interactions
Better work outcomes
Greater creativity and productivity at work
Higher quality of work and higher income
How much do we value happiness now in the U.S.?
It is in our Declaration of Independence
It doesn't seem to be valued much in our present culture
No popular TV or radio show, or magazines devoted to it
(More on next page)
Government doesn't measure or consider it directly in policies
Politicians don't talk about it
Not taught in schools
Businesses are not selling it or trying to sell it
Our average level of happiness is only about 69%
We are, on average, only happy 54% of the time
At any one time 25% of us are depressed
Why don't we value it more?
Means take precedence over our goal: money, success, status, comfort
It's easily measured or kept track of like money in the bank, etc.
It's not as enticing as status, success, etc
Hasn't been taught in schools, pushed by gov. or media or business
Many of us believe that happiness can't be increased, no point in valuing it
What do we commonly value more than happiness?
Money number 1 perceived strategy; above poverty line very insignificant
Success- self esteem and esteem of others leads to happiness
Entertainment Adults watch over 25 hours of TV per week
Work protestant work ethic; we often overwork ourselves
Material things bought with money earned at work
Comfort; its easier to just let life happen, especially leisure
Goals projects, hobbies, interests
How do we value happiness more?
Understand very clearly and strongly that its our basic goal in life
Remind ourselves of its value put us signs if we need to
Recognize and appreciate the benefits
Recognize the risks that come with unhappiness
Take a general interest in it; talk about it
Work on increasing it make it a goal, a measure of our success in life
Recognize the benefits of greater happiness to our world
Less war and terrorism and threat of war and terrorism
More compassion toward people that need help
Greater concern for our planet, plants, animals etc.
20. Happiness and Business
Happiness and Business
Why a show about happiness and business?
Business is already in the happiness business
Every product sold has that as it implicit purpose
Every service rendered has that " " "
Is there a market for happiness as a product?
Average level of happiness in U.S. is 69%
Throughout the world, it's much less
Average time we spend happy is only 54%
At any one time 25% of us are depressed Seligman
Is it possible to sell happiness as a product?
3 classic happiness experiments
Discussion, classroom training, affirmations
25% happier after 2-4 weeks 12% happier 9-18 months later
New experiments by Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, Emmons etc.
Goals, gratitude, personal responsibility, and other strategies
Pharmaceutical solutions, like anxiety, depression etc.
Why hasn't business marketed happiness yet?
Many people accept their unhappiness as inevitable don't ask
People don't know that increasing happiness is fast and easy
Business is generally not aware of the psychological findings
Consumer demand hasn't been created
Psychologists haven't valued or promoted happiness
Not a variable in therapy outcome studies
Until late 90's psychology was preoccupied with negatives
For every 100 studies on sadness, only one on hap
Few happiness increase experiments, although very successful
Precedents to Classes that would teach people to become happier
Dance schools, language classes, exercise and martial arts,
Tests to get into college
How can happiness as a product be sold?
Directly through schools and classes
Happiness coaches Seligman's website
Television shows, like this one, but more directly instructive
Books by professionals
Benefits to society from happiness businesses
Lower divorce rate
Superior work outcomes productivity, creativity, quality, income
More activity, and energy
Less depression, suicide, hypochondria, paranoia, etc.
Greater self control, self regulation and coping abilities
Stronger immune system
More cooperative, charitable
What can we do?
Demand happiness from our politicians
Demand it from clinical psychologists
Happiness coach to classes to businesses
Talk about happiness make it more of an issue!
22. Happiness and Weekends
Happiness and Weekends
The importance of weekends to happiness
Once there were no weekends
Resulted in over fatigue, probably early death
Weekends rejuvenate the body and mind
Many people fought for many years to win weekends
We should not take them for granted, like many other blessings
Most people are more satisfied with work life than leisure life
Most people rate vacations as their happiest times
Weekends can be viewed as mini-vacations
Getting together with family and friends
People closest to us are our main sources of happiness
Traveling, either overnight, or daytrips
Rest and relaxation
Two full days devoted to pleasure and enjoyment
Why don't we often enjoy weekends more than we do?
We don't plan unlike with our vacations
We replace work work with other kinds of work
Many of us are workaholics who have forgotten how to enjoy leisure
We sometimes take on too many projects lawns, home improve.
We don't recognize how important weekends can be to our happiness
They are training grounds for planning and enjoying pleasure
We take them for granted. Another weekend every seven days
How can we better use our weekends to make us happier?
Get togethers but don't overdo them
Don't wait until Friday
Increase your anticipatory pleasure
Others may already have plans
Don't just see the same people each weekend unless its really good
Get out of the house and into the world events, coffee shops, parks
Keep a notebook of places to go make list bowling etc.
Keep pleasure at the forefront of your weekend activities
Minimize the kinds of other jobs you take on lawns
If you're a workaholic, take on the job of figuring out weekends
Make a study of weekends
Compare to hours we spend doing income based work
Talk about weekends with friends and family
Figure out what exactly is limiting your enjoyment of weekends
Figure out what enhances them, and do these things more
A very effective way to improve overall happiness
Doesn't have to be extreme take long pleasant walks
See weekends as mini vacations
Get into that mindset
Wear different clothes
23. Happiness in Solitude
Happiness in Solitude
Research findings Other People are not necessary to our happiness
Good because we often find ourselves alone
Some of us live alone, or have few friends
Many of us end us spending much time alone as we get older
It's therefore wise to learn to be happy in solitude
What do we need to keep in mind to feel happy while alone?
Keep in mind that others are not necessary overcome need
Realize that our happiness is dependent upon our thoughts
We have the power to choose our thoughts and feelings
Influenced by TV, music, books, other activities
With effort we can get better and better at being happier alone
It shouldn't surprise us if we find ourselves reaching out as a result
How do we become happier while alone?
Learn to like ourselves more, appreciate ourselves
Smile especially while alone
Pretend to be happy, like an actor
Plan out and engage in activities we find pleasant more often
Meditate Mindfulness, TM
Create purposes and goals that don't require others, but can be for others
Enjoy virtual people the media, and the internet
TV not too often or depression will ensue
Radio sometimes interactive radio
Books, especially novels
Writing to others if possible
Internet chat rooms and newsgroups
Learn basic happiness skills, many are not about other people
Engage in Self-Exploration
Figure out what exactly are our unpleasant thoughts
What are we telling ourselves specify and refute
Are many of them related to missing others?
If much of it is boredom, mindfulness is very effective
What are our pleasant thoughts make effort to think more often
What are our needs and wants?
Get well organized so that we are fulfilling our needs well
Want happiness first; make desires concerning people secondary
What if we really want to be with others?
Becoming happier is probably the best way to start
Work on relationship skills
Figure out what is keeping us from being with others
Understand the importance of taking risks
There are sometimes friendship networks or phone support systems
Seek the help of a therapist or social worker who could hook us up
The internet is a great way to meet people